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1914

Ruth Turner's letters to George Mallory, to whom she became engaged in April 1914 and married on 29 July 1914. They first met at a dinner in the Autumn of 1913 at the house of Arthur Clutton-Brock, a lawyer and writer who lived in Hindhead Road not far from Charterhouse School where George was teaching. Ruth’s mother Mary had died six years before and Ruth and her two sisters Marjorie and Mildred lived with their father, Hugh Thackeray Turner, at Westbrook, an elegant house on the far side of the Wey Valley. They met socially several times over the next few months and in March Thackeray Turner invited George to accompany him and his daughters on a trip to Italy. George and Ruth fell in love during the week long’s holiday and became engaged in May.

Shortly after the engagement Ruth left to accompany her family on a long standing pre arranged holiday in Ireland based in County Donegal. George and Ruth pledged to write letters to each other daily when separated.

George and Ruth got married on 29 July 1914, George’s father conducted the ceremony and their best man was Geoffrey Young. Due to the worsening situation in Europe they could not spend their honeymoon in the Alps as they had hoped but instead went to North Devon and then camping on the Sussex coast.

1914

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1914
  • Subseries
  • 3 April 1914 - 30 May 1914
  • Part of Personal Papers

George Mallory’s correspondence with Ruth Turner, to whom he became engaged in April 1914 and married on 29 July 1914. They first met at a dinner in the Autumn of 1913 at the house of Arthur Clutton-Brock, a lawyer and writer who lived in Hindhead Road not far from Charterhouse School where George was teaching. Ruth’s mother Mary had died six years before and Ruth and her two sisters Marjorie and Mildred lived with their father, Hugh Thackeray Turner, at Westbrook, an elegant house on the far side of the Wey Valley. They met socially several times over the next few months and in March Thackeray Turner invited George to accompany him and his daughters on a trip to Italy. George and Ruth fell in love during the week longs holiday and became engaged in May.

Shortly after the engagement Ruth left to accompany her family on a long standing pre arranged holiday in Ireland based in County Donegal. George and Ruth pledged to write letters to each other daily when separated.

George and Ruth got married on 29 July 1914, George’s father conducted the ceremony and their best man was Geoffrey Winthrop Young. Due to the worsening situation in Europe they could not spend their honeymoon in the Alps as they had hoped but instead went to North Devon and then camping on the Sussex coast.

1915

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1915
  • Subseries
  • July 1915 - 31 December 1915
  • Part of Personal Papers

Increasing numbers of George’s friends were joining up to serve in the war effort in different capacities but when he enquired about doing so himself his Headmaster refused him permission as the Government wanted to retain its school teachers. By July Ruth was pregnant and George was restless so he went on a climbing trip to Pen y Pass with Hugh Heber-Percy and toured Yorkshire with his father.

On 18 September their first child was born - a daughter called Frances Clare (known as Clare).

His brother in law, the artillery officer Ralph Brooke, offered to help him get a commission in the Royal Artillery, if he could get permission from his Headmaster to join up. This was finally agreed and Brooke wrote to a friend who ran an artillery training course in Weymouth to recommend Mallory. The training was due to start in January 1916 so he travelled to Birkenhead to spend Christmas with his parents, then a few days climbing at Pen y Pass with Conor O'Brien and Herbert Reade before visiting his sister Avie in Mobberley. He did not spend Christmas with Ruth and Clare.

Letters
PP/GM/3/1/1915/1-9 Pen y Pass (July and August)

PP/GM/3/1/1915/10-11 Touring Yorkshire with his father (August)

PP/GM/3/1/1915/12-13 Pateley Bridge on his own (August)

PP/GM/3/1/1915/14 On the train to Cambridge (August)

PP/GM/3/1/1915/15 On the train from Birkenhead after having spent Christmas with his parents (December)

PP/GM/3/1/1915/16-17 Pen y Pass (December)

1915

  • MCPP/GM/3/2/1915
  • Subseries
  • 27 July 1915 - 31 December 1915
  • Part of Personal Papers

Increasing numbers of George’s friends were joining up to serve in the war effort in different capacities but when he enquired about doing so himself his Headmaster refused him permission as the Government wanted to retain its school teachers. By July Ruth was pregnant and George was restless so he went on a climbing trip to Pen y Pass with Hugh Heber-Percy and toured Yorkshire with his father. On 31 July Ruth moved into Westbrook, her father's house.

On 18 September Ruth gave birth to their first child - a daughter called Frances Clare.

His brother in law, the artillery officer Ralph Brooke, offered to help George get a commission in the Royal Artillery, if he could get permission from his Headmaster to join up. This was finally agreed with Fletcher and Brooke wrote to a friend who ran an artillery training course in Weymouth to recommend Mallory. The training was due to start in January 1916 so George travelled to Birkenhead to spend Christmas with his parents, then a few days climbing at Pen y Pass with Conor O'Brien and Herbert Reade before visiting his sister Avie in Mobberley. He did not spend Christmas with Ruth and Clare.

1916

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1916
  • Subseries
  • 1 January 1916 - 31 December 1916
  • Part of Personal Papers

January 1916 - began his military training in Weymouth.
They rented out the Holt and Ruth and Clare moved to a cottage near Dorchester and then a more suitable place in Abbotsbury (a village 5 miles from Weymouth) so that they could spend their weekends together.

1 April - George moved from Weymouth to Lydd and Ruth returned to Westbrook. He only had Sundays off but they found a tiny flat in Littlestone where they could stay together.

4 May - George was assigned to the 40th Siege Battery and left for France. After a week he took the troop train to join the battery which was positioned in the northern sector of the western front a short distance from the front line.

Ruth remained at Westbrook and they let the Holt firstly to Mr and Mrs Green and then to the O’Malleys.

George was a Second Lieutenant meaning he was third in command behind the commanding officer Captain Lithgow and Lieutenant Bell. His responsibilities included taking charge of the firing of the guns and manning the observation posts (O.P.s) from where the fire could be directed. As he spoke fluent French he was also tasked with buying provisions at the local markets.

29 May – the unit moved south to ‘a hot part of the line’. A British infantry attack was imminent and the battery had to haul its guns into position with horses.

30 May - when the attack was launched the battery fired off more than 600 shells.

14 June – the battery moved south again and took up position near Albert, just north of the River Somme.

1 July – launch of the British offensive at the Somme. The battery had been firing at the German line for a week and at 6.30 on the morning of 1 July the firing intensified.

6 July - the battery fired all day in support of another British attack.

15 July – he saw flame throwers being used by the French for the first time.

29 July – George and 5 of his men went up the front line and after renewing a telephone wire they were crossing open ground when they heard an incoming shell and dived for cover. The two men who were carrying the coil of wire were moving more slowly and were killed.

Mid August – George was sent to rest camp near Amiens for 10 days. He started writing a novel, later to be called The Book of Geoffrey.

26 September - the British captured Thiepval (which had been their goal on 1 July)

December – sent home for 10 days leave returning to France on Boxing Day and arriving back at the battery on 29 December.

1916

  • MCPP/GM/3/2/1916
  • Subseries
  • 4 May 1916 - 31 December 1916
  • Part of Personal Papers

January 1916 - George began his military training in Weymouth and they rented out the Holt. Ruth and Clare moved to a cottage near Dorchester and then a more suitable place in Abbotsbury (a village 5 miles from Weymouth) so that they could spend their weekends with George.

1 April - Ruth returned to Westbrook when George moved from Weymouth to Lydd. He only had Sundays off but they found a tiny flat in Littlestone where they could stay together.

4 May - George was assigned to the 40th Siege Battery and left for France. After a week he took the troop train to join the Battery which was positioned in the northern sector of the western front a short distance from the front line. Ruth remained at Westbrook and they let the Holt firstly to Mr and Mrs Green and then to the O’Malleys.

George was a Second Lieutenant meaning he was third in command behind the commanding officer Captain Lithgow and Lieutenant Bell. His responsibilities included taking charge of the firing of the guns and manning the observation posts (O.P.s) from where the fire could be directed. As he spoke fluent French he was also tasked with buying provisions at the local markets.

His Battery took part in the Battle of the Somme which lasted from 1 July until 18 November 1916.

In December he was sent home for 10 days leave returning to France on Boxing Day and arriving back at the Battery on 29 December.

1917

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1917
  • Subseries
  • 2 January 1917 - 4 November 1917
  • Part of Personal Papers

January - On his return to France following leave George Mallory was transferred to Brigade Headquarters, 3 miles behind the front line. He was appointed as assistant to the colonel but as the colonel hated delegating he only had menial chores to carry out. He had to learn to ride a horse and accompany the colonel on inspections. He had a batman who had been a barber in civilian life.

February – brief assignment as a liaison officer to a nearby French unit.

End of March – he applied to return to his battery which had moved to a new position. The Germans were starting to retreat and talk was of the Americans joining the war.

He was increasingly getting pain in his ankle making walking hard. The doctor said it was the result of a previous break in 1909 which hadn’t healed properly and he would need an operation after the war. The ankle worsened and he was sent home for the operation in London followed by recovery at Westbrook.

July - his ankle was better enough for him to visit the island of Arran with David Pye and Will Arnold-Forster [first time he had been to the Scottish hills] having first spent a few days with Cosmo Gordon's family.

September – army doctors passed him fit for duty. He was sent to an army camp at Avington Park, near Winchester, to train on the new sixty-pound guns. He borrowed a motorcycle and visited Ruth at the weekends. She was nearing the end of her pregnancy with their second daughter Berridge (known as Berry) who was born on 16 September.

Early Oct – made a full Lieutenant and undertook a course for newly promoted officers.
On his return from Westbrook on his motorcycle he cashed into a gatepost crushing his right foot. He was in hospital for a month and took another month before he would walk on it.

End of 1917 – passed fit for service but instead of returning to France he took a battery commander’s course at the artillery school at Lydd. This school came under the command of his brother-in-law Ralph Brooke. Ruth and the children went with him and stayed with Ralph, Mary and their three children.

Christmas 1917 – spent at Westbrook.

1917

  • MCPP/GM/3/2/1917
  • Subseries
  • 1 January 1917 - 28 April 1917
  • Part of Personal Papers

January - On his return to France following leave George Mallory was transferred to Brigade Headquarters, 3 miles behind the front line. He was appointed as assistant to the Colonel but as the Colonel hated delegating he only had menial chores to carry out. He had to learn to ride a horse and accompany the Colonel on inspections. He had a batman who had been a barber in civilian life.

February – brief assignment as a liaison officer to a nearby French unit.

End of March – he applied to return to his battery which had moved to a new position. The Germans were starting to retreat and talk was of the Americans joining the war.

He was increasingly getting pain in his ankle making walking hard. The doctor said it was the result of a previous break in 1909 which hadn’t healed properly and he would need an operation after the war. The ankle worsened and he was sent home for the operation in London followed by recovery at Westbrook.

July - his ankle was better enough for him to visit the island of Arran with David Pye and Will Arnold-Forster [first time he had been to the Scottish hills] having first spent a few days with Cosmo Gordon's family.

September – army doctors passed him fit for duty. He was sent to an army camp at Avington Park, near Winchester, to train on the new sixty-pound guns. He borrowed a motorcycle and visited Ruth at the weekends at Westbrook. She was nearing the end of her pregnancy with their second daughter Berridge (known as Berry) who was born on 16 September.

Early Oct – made a full Lieutenant and undertook a course for newly promoted officers.
On his return from Westbrook on his motorcycle he cashed into a gatepost crushing his right foot. He was in hospital for a month and took another month before he would walk on it.

End of 1917 – passed fit for service but instead of returning to France he took a battery commander’s course at the artillery school at Lydd. This school came under the command of his brother-in-law Ralph Brooke. Ruth and the children went with him and stayed with Ralph, Mary and their three children.

Christmas 1917 – spent at Westbrook.

1918

  • MCPP/GM/3/2/1918
  • Subseries
  • 23 September 1918 - 30 December 1918
  • Part of Personal Papers

January – George was best man at the wedding of Robert Graves and Nancy Nicholson.

Easter – attended the wedding of Geoffrey Young and Eleanor Slingsby.

End July – George and Ruth spent a week in Skye with David Pye and Leslie Shadbolt.

September – training in Newcastle accompanied by Ruth.

End of September – returned to France. Assigned to the 515th siege battery positioned between Arras and the Channel coast.
Commanding officer was Major Gwilym Lloyd George (son of the British Prime Minister). Fighting was further to the south.
Ruth returned to Westbrook.

10 November – George was with Geoffrey Keynes who was with a unit near Cambrai when they heard shouts about an Armistice late at night.

He spent Armistice Day with his brother Trafford (who had trained as a pilot after being invalided home in 1915, joined the Royal Flying Corps, and by the end of the war was a Royal Air Force squadron commander).

He spent a week in Paris and Christmas with his men. Then rented a room in Calais waiting to be demobilised.
Returned home in the second week of January 1919.

1918

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1918
  • Subseries
  • 28 September 1918 - 31 December 1918
  • Part of Personal Papers

January – George was best man at the wedding of Robert Graves and Nancy Nicholson.

Easter – attended the wedding of Geoffrey Winthrop Young and Eleanor Slingsby.

End July – George and Ruth spent a week in Skye with David Pye and Leslie Shadbolt.

September – training in Newcastle accompanied by Ruth.

End of September – returned to France. Assigned to the 515th Siege Battery positioned between Arras and the Channel coast.
Commanding officer was Major Gwilym Lloyd George (son of the British Prime Minister). Fighting was further to the south.

10 November – George was with Geoffrey Keynes who was with a unit near Cambrai when they heard shouts about an Armistice late at night.

He spent Armistice Day with his brother Trafford (who had trained as a pilot after being invalided home in 1915, joined the Royal Flying Corps, and by the end of the war was a Royal Air Force squadron commander).

He spent a week in Paris and Christmas with his men. Then rented a room in Calais waiting to be demobilised.
Returned home in the second week of January 1919.

1919

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1919
  • Subseries
  • 1 January 1919 - 7 January 1919
  • Part of Personal Papers

He was demobilised and returned home from France in the second week of January 1919.

1919

  • MCPP/GM/3/2/1919
  • Subseries
  • 1 January 1919 - 7 January 1919
  • Part of Personal Papers

After spending the Christmas and New Year period making arrangements for moving, Ruth finally moves back to the Holt on 7 January, and George arrives home in the second week.

1921

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1921
  • Subseries
  • April 1921 - 20 October 1921
  • Part of Personal Papers

Outline of 1921 Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition

The aims of the expedition were to explore how to get to the vicinity of Mount Everest, find possible routes to the summit, and if possible attempt the first ascent.

The expedition party consisted of: Charles Howard-Bury (leader), Harold Raeburn and Alexander Kellas (experienced mountaineers), George Mallory and Guy Bullock (younger and less experienced climbers), Sandy Wollaston (naturalist and doctor), Alexander Heron (geologist), Henry Morshead and Oliver Wheeler (surveyors seconded from the army).

During the expedition Kellas died and Raeburn fell ill and had to leave the expedition making Mallory the lead climber.

Bad weather meant they could not make an attempt on the summit.

The expedition succeeded in identifying the North Col as a feasible route to the summit.

April - George Mallory sailed from England to Calcutta in India on board the S.S. Sardinia
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/1-8 - describes the voyage

May - Arrived in India and met up with other members of the expeditionary team at Government House, Darjeeling and began the trek to Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/9 - at Government House
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/10-12 - trek to the vicinity of Mount Everest

June - Mallory’s first views of Everest and reconnaissance efforts
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/13 - reports Dr Kellas’ death
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/14 - first view of Mount Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/15 - ‘we are now in a county no European has previously visited’
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/16 - ‘until incredibly higher in the sky than imagination had ventured to dream, the top of Everest itself appeared. We knew it to be Everest’
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/17 - written from ‘1st Base Camp under Everest’

July - Reached 2nd Advanced Base Camp and 1st Base Camp Rongbuk Glacier, further reconnaissance efforts and climbing achievements
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/18-23

August - Confirmed the existence of the North Col and therefore a passageway to Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/24-28

September - Bad weather meant they had to abandon plans to attempt to summit and they returned home
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/29-31

October - return trip to England
MCPP/GM/3/1/1921/32 - written from ‘Benares’ on his way home via Marseilles where he met up with Ruth

1922

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1922
  • Subseries
  • 7 March 1922 - 6 July 1922
  • Part of Personal Papers

Outline of 1922 British Mount Everest Expedition

This was the first mountaineering expedition with the express aim of making the first ascent of Mount Everest. It was also the first expedition that attempted to climb Everest using bottled oxygen. In the previous year the reconnaissance expedition had explored the eastern and northern sides of the mountain and had established a possible route to the summit.

The party consisted of Charles G. Bruce (expedition leader), Edward Strutt (deputy leader and mountaineer), George Mallory (mountaineer), George Finch (mountaineer), Edward Norton (mountaineer), Henry Morshead (mountaineer), Dr Howard Somervell (mountaineer), Dr Arthur Wakefield (mountaineer), John Noel (photographer and film maker), Dr Tom Longstaff (expedition medical officer), Geoffrey Bruce (translator and organisation and cousin of Charles G. Bruce), John Morris (translator and organisation) and Colin Crawford (translator and organisation).

After two unsuccessful summit attempts, the expedition ended on the third attempt when an avalanche killed seven climbing sherpas. Not only had the expedition failed to reach the summit, but it also marked the first reported climbing deaths on Mount Everest. The expedition did however establish a new world record climbing height of (27,320 ft).

March - Sea journey from England to India on board the Caledonia and start of trek to Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/1 - nearing Port Said
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/2 - nearing Aden
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/3 - nearing Bombay [Mumbai]
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/4 - Chevremont, Darjeeling (21 March)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/5 – Kalimpong (27-28 March)

April - Trek to Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/6 – Gnatong (1 April)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/7 - Phari (6-7 April)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/8 - Kampa Dzong (12 April)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/9 - Tinki Dzong (18 April)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/10 - Shekar Dzong (26 April)

May - Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/11 - Rongbuk Base Camp (2 May)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/12 - Rongbuk Base Camp (10 May)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/13 - Camp III (15 May)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/14 - Camp III (17-18 May); 1st Attempt (20 May)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/15 - Base Camp; 2nd summit attempt (26 May)

June - Everest
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/16 - Preparation for 3rd summit attempt (1 June)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/17 - Base Camp [Post-Avalanche, (6-7 June)]
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/18 - Camp south of Kharta Shikar [Shekar] (27-28 June)

July - Return Journey
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/19 – Kharta (1 July)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/20 - Kharta (1 July)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/21 - Kampa Dzong (10 July)
MCPP/GM/3/1/1922/22 - Chevremont, Darjeeling (26 July)

1923

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1923
  • Subseries
  • 16 January 1923 - 23 March 1923
  • Part of Personal Papers

Outline of 1923 (Jan-Mar; Oct)

January - George Mallory travelled to the United States and Canada to begin a lecture tour.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/1
Onboard the SS Olympic travelling to New York to give a series of lectures.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/2
Staying at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. He describes his press agent Keedick, provides his impressions of New York City, and mentions his writing work.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/3
In Washington, D.C. Discusses his lectures and writings and describes his experiences with American audiences.

February - Continues the lecture tour. Describes having dinner American Prohibition. Learns to ski.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/4
In New York City. Describes his dinner experience during American Prohibition, reports on his speaking engagements and mentions being interviewed. He attended an American Alpine Club dinner and other social luncheons. Shares his impressions of New York.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/5
In Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Reports on recent lecture in New York and describes social visits to friends in New York and Canada.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/6
Hotel Flanders, New York City. Had spent the weekend learning to ski in Canada and reports ‘bad news’ from MCpress agent Keedick regarding lecture tour.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/7
Harvard Club, New York City. Attends a dinner party with the American Alpine Club and spends weekends in Long Island.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/8
Sheffield, Massachusetts and Boston, MA – Describes his impressions of New York and Boston where he attended an opera.

March - Continues the lecture tour, visits Niagara Falls, shares his disappointment of lecture tour results, and is famously quoted in New York Times article, ‘Because it’s there’ (March 18, 1924).

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/9
Toledo Club, Toledo, Ohio. Says Boston was rather charming and that there was another big audience in Philadelphia.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/10
Hotel Seneca, Rochester, New York [with postmarked envelope]. Had given lectures in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. Describes a trip to Niagara Falls, and discusses finances.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/11
Chicago, Illinois. Was onboard a train. Due to give a lecture in Iowa City which was the furthest west but was disappointed not to be lecturing in Chicago.

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/12
Somerset Club, Boston, MA. Shares plans for returning home and provides thoughts on his ‘American visit’.

October - Moving house and planning to return to Mount Everest

MCPP/GM/3/1/1923/13
Is writing after lecture tour to Ruth in Cambridge, before their move into Herschel House in Cambridge, where Ruth would later receive news of George's death. Most of this letter is about plans for moving into Herschel House, including moving logistics and design choices. However, the end of the letter discusses his pending decision to re-join the Mount Everest Committee and commit to returning to Mount Everest in 1924.

1924

  • MCPP/GM/3/1/1924
  • Subseries
  • 3 March 1924 - 27 May 1924
  • Part of Personal Papers

Outline of 1924 British Mount Everest Expedition

The party consisted of Charles Bruce (expedition leader), Edward Norton (2nd in command and mountaineer), George Mallory (mountaineer and lead of the climbing team), Bentley Beetham (mountaineer), Geoffrey Bruce (mountaineer), John de Vars Hazard (mountaineer), Dr Richard Hingston (expedition doctor), Andrew Irvine (mountaineer), John Noel (photographer and movie camera operator), Noel Odell (mountaineer and geologist), Edward Shebbeare (transportation officer and interpreter), Dr Howard Somervell (mountaineer and medical doctor)

March – Sea journey from England to India on board the R.M.S. California and start of the trek to Everest

April - Journey through Tibet to Everest. Charles Bruce was taken ill with maleria en route and Edward Norton took over command of the Expedition. Mallory was named second in command and lead of the climbing team. They reached Base Camp by the end of the month.

May - Was spent establishing camps and making plans.

1 June - Bruce and Mallory made the first attempt on the summit.
2 June - Norton and Somervell made the second attempt on the summit.
5 June - Mallory and Irvine were in Camp IV. On 6 June they departed for Camp V. On 7 June they moved on to Camp VI.

They were last seen alive by Noel Odell on 8 June.

1924

  • MCPP/GM/3/2/1924
  • Subseries
  • 3 March 1924 - 12 April 1924
  • Part of Personal Papers

This series contains the only surviving letter from the Everest period in the Archive that Ruth Mallory wrote to her husband George and the three letters that were found on his body when it was discovered in 1999. They were from his brother Trafford, his sister Mary Brooke and Stella [thought to be Stella Cobden-Sanderson].

Appeal for Funds for New Sports Ground, 1911

Printed letter from A. S. Ramsey (President and Hon. Treasurer) and W. H. F. Maule (Hon. Secretary) addressed to G. H. L. Mallory appealing for a donation towards the new sports ground and the fund towards building a new pavilion.

Boswell the Biographer

File about Mallory's book Boswell the Biographer including letters from John Murray (publishers), Smith, Elder & Co [who published the book]; an account showing sales; Mallory's account showing he had ordered six copies to be sent to Charterhouse (3 copies), G. Sayle, G. L. Keynes, and St John's Vicarage [his parents]; and press cuttings of reviews.

Also a copy of the book text published by Amazon 2016 (Create Space Independent Publishing Platform), printed in Poland.

College Bills

Termly College bills. These list the charges made for standard services such as bedmaker, laundress, matriculation fee, coals, hall dinners, tutorial fund and public lectures.

Diary Entries, 2-17 August 1921 [discovery of North Col]

Brief Summary
Reconnaissance to find a route to the North Col and therefore a route to the summit of Everest.

Detailed Summary
On the first page Mallory gives a very brief summary of events on each day.

2 August – Elaborate preparations to leave Kharta. Took same mountaineering stores as they had from Tingri but left behind the primus stoves and a bundle of sleeping sacks. Thought they were in easy reach of the base of Kharta and could send for them later. Main problem was rations. Porters had decided they didn’t have enough to eat. Howard-Bury had accused Gyaltzen of making money out of them. Needed to devise a way of providing rations so Gyaltzen was not involved buying them. It was decided he would buy food on credit during the march and the Colonel would pay later.

It was a hazardous adventure but the prospects seemed rosy. The great glacier stream joining the Arun just below them was presumed to come from Everest and the left branch from the North Col. They expected to be on the North Col within a few days. However, the start from Kharta was dilatory. The Sidar was up late and hadn’t organised anything. The loads had been counted wrong, they had no animals and had to leave three loads behind. In Shikar Kharta [Kharta Shekar] they were received by the Dzongpen [governor] and had tea and biscuits. There was an argument with the porters about rations and they had to be urged to continue. They stopped at a house to drink and admire the rugs that were being woven. Then they came to a monastery where one porter refused to continue on. The porter put up the tents at the junction of the valley after only ½ days march.

3 August – As they had stopped after so short a march the day before they had a long march on the second day. They had a rise of 4,000 ft to the pass. They pitched tents on a yak grazing ground above the valley. Flowers very good on both sides the pass and he found the blue primula. No sheep or goats.

4 August – Clouds had not lifted and they had a descent of 800 ft to river bed. There was rich vegetation which he describes. Heavy rain cam e down and they decided to set up camp although it was early. Thought they were going in the wrong direction and wanted clouds to clear to make sure. Discussion with Headman and was assured a route did exist up the valley

5 August – Clouds began to clear so they could see Everest. Reconnaissance out from the camp and up a final low peak showed no easy way existed which could take them round to the end of East ridge.

6 August - Fine morning and pleasant walk up the right bank of the glacier. Fine show of gentians. A steep rise of about 800 ft lead to a very small lake where we camped. Snow fell almost continuously in afternoon and evening. Clouds broke to give a wonderful view at sunset.

7 August – Later start than planned. Cook was ill and everything was covered with snow but they got off at 4.10am. Their objective was the conspicuous sharp show peak, third from the N.E. Arete of Everest. Describes the trek to the col which they reached at 8.45am. Had a hearty meal and took two photos. Not possible to see the head of the glacier north of them. They climbed up and it was clear that the glacier head was a snow col. He insisted that the peak ahead must be climbed in order to try and see the north col. The next section was very steep. The east face in front of them had to be avoided. The south face was separated from them by a broad gully. Snow was very deep and he was constantly thinking of the danger of avalanches. They managed to get onto the steep south slope. The porters (Nimya, [Nyima] Alugga, Pema, and Dasno) learnt much about using the rope. They reached the far edge at 12:15 pm and looked across directly to the east ridge of Everest although still couldn’t see the North col. The party lay down to sleep while he took photos and ate some food before trekking the final slopes. He then went on with Nimya [Nyima] and Dasno. They abandoned their snowshoes at the foot of a very steep snow face. Dasno then abandoned them. As he thought the snow was in too bad a condition. It was a place to fear an avalanche. It was exhausting and he disn’t get a clear view as a reward. Bullock led down, very slow in the steep snow. He had a baddish headache by this time and felt unwell. When they got back at about 4.30pm he felt exhausted and feverish and in spite of warm clothes couldn’t prevent himself shivering.

8 August – Porters were delayed in arriving so they prepared to move without them. He felt weak walking. Met up with porters and heard Howard-Bury had arrived at Base Camp. Reached Base Camp at 11.15am. Howard-Bury was out photographing. He went to bed. Discussed rations again and decided to give the porters a share of the balance and they were happy.

9 August - Felt slack with swollen glands in the neck and a sore throat but was fitter to walk. Collected flowers and seeds on the way down. Howard-Bury decided to go back to Kharta by another pass. Had to stand and wait ½ hour for the clouds to thin so he could take 2 photographs of the summit. He saw a beautifu lblue gentian which he had never seen before in the Alps. He realised he wasn’t carrying his woollen waistcoat. Retraced his steps but couldn’t find it. Offered a reward to any porter who could find it. They looked but couldn’t see it.

10 August – Saw a tiny yellow saxifrage which Wollaston hadn’t got. Continued down hill and was pleased he could leave Bullock behind going downhill as well as up. The meadows in the valley were delicious and very warm.

11 August - Bathed in the stream. Had been promised yakmen were coming but they didn’t arrive. Managed to get hold of two yaks and left packs for porters to bring. He felt unwell and the porters were slack. Gorang lied by saying there was no water higher up. Had to persuade the porters to continue. Found water and a good sheltered spot for the camp.

12 August: A days rest and fuel collecting. He kept to his bed.

13 August - feeling feeble with a sore throat and swollen glands. Morshead arrived with a note from Wollaston and Bury which cheered him a good deal. Bullock sent a note in the evening with depressing news that the valley was ‘no good’. This mean fresh efforts of reconnaissance. Was a comfort to have Morshead.

14 August – they searched for a possible approach and had been mistaken about the topography of the expected valley. Hoped two more days would settle the question.

15 August – He and Morshead followed a shelf but found no exit to their glacier and had to stop, camping at a place with just enough room where the ground was not too sloping to pitch the three tents.

16 August - Best chance of a clear view was to go up. Doesn’t know why he went one except he was so miserable he wanted to reduce the rest of the party to a like state of mind. Bullock lead down the glacier badly doing little to avoid the crevasses which were covered by snow. They discussed plans at some length. A sketch map had arrived from Wheeler the day before showing a glacier [East Rongbuk Glacier] of enormous dimensions running north from Everest and draining into the Rongbuk valley but it’s inaccuracies had made them discount Wheler’s conclusion too much. He showed no East ridge to the North Peak. He thought wheeler had mistaken that ridge for the N.E. Arete of Everest (which he showed S.E.). He had little hope it would be of service to them. It could only be so if it drained on to the Rongbuk valley as Bullock thought probable. Either Wheeler must be right or the North Col was lower than they thought and the cwm high enough to push its glacier near it. They agreed he would descend to the north to see if there was a glacier in that direction.

17 August Gives three causes of the failure of rations supply.

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